We aim to develop tools to assess patient outcomes following treatment and removal of bone metastases. We will identify markers for enhanced patient outcomes, so as to predict which patients may benefit from more aggressive treatments to better their quality of life. We also aim to use 3D printed bone implants to help in the treatment of patients with bone metastasis. These implants will serve as a local reservoir for the anticancer drugs that will improve bone regeneration while also preventing tumor recurrence.
Rapid identification of bacteria in blood is important for the early identification of infection and emergence of resistance to therapy. There is no wishful, fast and simple, technological solution for this quest. Some of infections are life-threatening and requires fast and focused drug treatment as soon as possible. The present approach is to use empirical therapy and wait for culture results (if positive) to modify treatment, i.e. to remove unaffected drugs and add/increase drugs which will attenuate identified pathogen.
Blood cancer (leukemia) is common, with ~48,600 and 6,400 new cases expected in the United States and Canada respectively in 2016. The National Cancer Institute (US) calculated an overall 5-year survival rate of 56% for various blood cancers. This is because most current therapies are short-lived; drug resistance and relapse pose significant clinical problems. Life-long treatment is required, with potential long-term side-effects and a high cost.
As a primary cancer progresses to the deadliest form, metastatic cancer, the cells undergo several genetic and epigenetic alterations referred to as the metastatic gene signature. Part of a metastatic gene signature is the downregulation of genes associated with immune recognition, which can be seen in multiple cancer types as the down regulation of the antigen presentation machinery (APM). This internship project will contribute to the collaborative investigation of APM and its potential as future therapeutics in the prevention of cancer progression.
The number of biomedical scientific publications available in multiple repositories is huge and rapidly growing. As of April 2014, PubMed, the largest knowledge source for biomedical and life science literature, comprises more than 23 million citations. Querying PubMed with the keyword HIV provides a list of almost three hundred thousand citations. Retrieving data of particular interest for a specific research field in such a large volume of publications is often like looking for a needle in a haystack.
Cancers are treated today with the appropriate combination of chemotherapy drugs, surgery and radiation. Chemotherapy is almost invariably dosed intravenously, and enters the systemic blood flow where it circulates around the whole body, coming into contact with healthy cells as well as cancerous ones. This systemic dosing has two big problems: too little drug gets to cancer cells, and too much drug comes into contact with healthy cells, causing side effects. Frequently, these dose-limiting side-effects prevent us from delivering the maximally effective anti-cancer drug dose.
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS) affects 1/4,000 newborns. People with this condition can have various medical problems, and approximately 30% develop psychiatric illness such as bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. A recent study explored parents’ experience of receiving a diagnosis of 22qDS for their child. Families identified an unmet need for information from their healthcare providers about the psychiatric features of 22qDS, and indicated that risk for psychiatric illness was a major source of anxiety for them, compared to the other features of the syndrome.