Due to the rapid increase in demand for petroleum and its declining reserves, the concern over energy security has intensified the interest in liquefying coal and biomass to liquid fuels and chemicals, especially for those countries which have abundant coal reserves, such as the United States, Canada, China, etc. Co-liquefaction of coal with biomass has gained particular research interest due to the synergistic effects between biomass and coal during liquefaction.
Caking, in the crystallization field, also known as agglomeration, is a phenomenon that can be defined as the process of formation of clumps or masses rather than flow smoothly. There are several factors involved in determining the degree of caking including but not limited to: the substance's particle surface chemistry, particle size and particle-size distribution, particle shape, and environmental factors such as temperature and humidity.
Ethanol is a versatile feedstock that is extremely beneficial. A new route of EtOH synthesis from syngas via dimethyl ether carbonylation and methyl acetate hydrogenation has been proposed. This is environmentally friendly and efficient. Throughout this research, the relationship between the nature of MA activation and the size of the supported Cu nanoparticles will be analyzed, in order to illuminate the size effect of Cu/CeO2 catalysts on catalytic properties in ester hydrogenation reactions. In this lab CuCl and dimethyl sulfoxide are used to prepare different CuOx nanoparticles.
Chromium based catalysts such as Phillip’s catalyst are widely used in the production of polyethylene materials, specifically high density polyethylene. Despite their widespread and successful use, there is still much that is unknown about how exactly these catalysts work and interact with other catalysts. New research has been done that has indicated the chromium vanadium catalysts may be very effective. This is important as it could change the way much of the worlds plastic is produced.
The synthesis of chemicals and fuels through processes that do not involve oil, but rather coal is of great importance to China. The research aims to develop a new method to produce lower olefins (short hydrocarbon chains) with the use of Iron-based catalysts and syngas derived from coal. The purpose of the Iron-based catalysts is to influence the process to produce products of interest.With the use of metal catalyst, the size of the hydrocarbons produced can be narrowed down.
This research topic has significant potential industrial application as it can convert waste (or industrially unusable) fatty acids into fully saturated fatty acids by hydrogenation, then decarboxylation to long hydrocarbon chains. Catalyst is a fundamental aspect to many chemical reactions, where many important laboratory and industrial processes are dependent on carefully selected catalyst to operate.
Recent decades have seen an increase in nitrogen concentration in bodies of water as a result of human activity. High nitrogen concentrations in water are toxic to humans and can be harmful to the environment. The purpose of the research project to be performed at the Zhejiang University of Technology is the study of the hydraulic characteristics associated with removal of ammonia nitrogen from wastewater treated in an anaerobic-aerobic fluidized bed bioreactor.
With the development of social and economic structures, and an increase in energy consumption, the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has increased rapidly. This increase is regarded as one of the greatest factors in global warming. Capturing CO2 from large stationary sources and inject it into deep saline aquifers is being considered as part of a possible mitigation strategy to reduce anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
Extraction of a solvent has been considered as one of the promising methods for heavy hydrocarbon recovery from oil and tar sands because of its low usage of water, as well as its high efficiency rates. Unfortunately, longer sedimentation times are caused by the mineral particles being suspended in a non-aqueous solution because of the heavy fractions on the particles surface (which is a result of the usage of coated petroleum components).
The research project is studying the reaction of benzene to produce toluene and xylene is very useful as both of these products have great commercial value. The challenge that is being researched is to make this reaction more efficient by minimizing the sub-reactions that happen simultaneously, specifically the reaction of methanol to olefins. These sub-reactions tend to interfere with the main reaction and cause less of an output of the desired product.