In vitro embryo production and embryo transfer (IVP/ET) is a technique that has been developed in cattle for genetic selection to enable rapid improvement in commercially important traits. Technological advances have resulted in a significant increase in the commercial use of IVP/ET in recent years, and have made this one of the fastest growing sectors in the dairy industries. However, pregnancy rates following the transfer of IVP embryos are lower than that of in vivo produced embryos.
In 2012, the estimated value of forage in Canada was $5.1 Billion. Forages are the foundation for the beef and dairy sectors which have a combined economic activity of $50 Billion. However we have recently seen a loss of nearly 2.2 Million acres of pasture land across Canada, which means productivity from our remaining forage lands must improve for the future competitiveness of the beef industry. This project contains 4 research activities on alternative forages and improved technologies that will increase the productivity and quality of the forage industry in Saskatchewan and Canada.
Dogs can be infected with several species of tapeworms, but show no obvious symptoms. Tapeworms are generally diagnosed by detection of microscopic eggs produced by the parasites that are passed in the dog's stool. However, this technique is not ideal, as eggs are not always passed in stool, different tapeworms produce visually similar eggs, and this requires an experienced diagnostician. Therefore, false negatives are common. There is increasing interest in techniques to directly detect DNA of parasites in stool of dogs. Aquila Diagnostics Systems Inc.
In western Canada, increased nutrient demand associated with decreased temperatures and increased fetal growth may lead to nutrient deficiencies in pregnant cattle. Compromised maternal nutrition can impact fetal muscle development, body weight gain, hot carcass weight, back fat and marbling. Vaccination strategy may also impact carcass outcomes of the offspring. Carcass evaluation is necessary to determine if these reactions persist until slaughter.
Feed restriction in gestating sows is required to prevent excessive body weight gain and the associated negative consequences on lactation, locomotion, farrowing, and feed intake during lactation. Aggression and stereotypies associated with restricted feeding become a welfare and production concern when the sows are housed in groups.
The B vitamin requirements of cattle were traditionally satisfied via rumen microbial synthesis. However, the B vitamin demands of the modern high producing dairy cow now exceed the synthesis rate by rumen microbes, leading to sub-optimal milk production and efficiency. An increased understanding of dietary factors driving ruminal synthesis and use of B vitamins will help identify when supplementation will benefit the cow. Although B vitamin kinetics in the dairy cow have not previously been modelled, data on concentrations and flows are available from extant sources.
The âgold standardâ mammalian safety toxicopathological tests are very sensitive and reproducible examinations used by veterinary pathologists in the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies to detect sublethal toxic effects of candidate drugs, pesticides and other chemicals in laboratory animals to determine the safe dose range of these medications/chemicals for humans and animals. However, comparable toxicopathological approaches using histopathology have not been developed for honey bees.
Feather pecking (FP) in egg-laying hens, where individuals peck repetitively and excessively at other birds to pull out and eat their feathers, is a challenge for the industry with large economic and welfare implications. High prevalence of FP is reported (60-80%) and this is associated with mortality rates of up to 20-40%, which translates to hundreds of millions of birds dying due to FP every year.
Pork producers in Canada are in the process of transitioning from stall housing to group housing systems for gestating sows. The greatest concern with this change is the problem of aggression when pregnant sows are mixed. Mixing frequently results in aggressive interactions among sows, and can affect reproduction and cause welfare problems. Typically sows are held in stalls for several weeks after insemination to minimize stress during embryo implantation, however there is increasing pressure to reduce the time that sows are kept in stalls.
A parasite present in the Bras dâOrs Lake in Cape Breton, NS has closed the oyster aquaculture and wild fishery in Cape Breton since the initial outbreak in 2002. This parasite has also affected oysters in the Eastern US. The industry in the US has survived and is stable in part due to the production of triploid oysters. Triploid oysters grow to market size faster and this fast growth rate reduces the time the oyster spends in the wild and therefore reduces the timeframe that the oyster may become infected with the parasite.