The Neurobiology of Anorexia Nervosa: integrating cellular mechanisms into brain circuits

Anorexia Nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by exaggerated weight loss, fear of gaining weight, self-depreciation. It mostly affects young women and is most likely have the highest death rate of any other mental illnesses and of many diseases in general. Anorexia is notoriously treatment refractory and the main explanation is the poor understanding of the dysfunctional brain function that underlies it.

Design of a gene network implementing an associative memory circuit

The main goal of this research project is to implement an associative memory module in a gene network. The idea is to use the theoretical work already done at the Signals and Systems Laboratory (L2S) and to apply it in the area of genetics. The proposed approach is innovative, as it combines techniques from two disciplines: engineering and life sciences. The work done at L2S deals with a type of systems that includes networks, and in this particular case it would be applied to a network made up of genes.

Effects of Pulse Lighting Regimes on Microalgae Growth

Algae are microorganisms present in all aquatic environments with the ability to grow using sunlight as energy source. This ability can be harnessed to produce biomass for various purposes of industrial interests such as biofuel, animal feed, nutrients, etc. This project seeks to improve the productivity of an algal growth facility while reducing energy costs by exploring alternative illumination methods.

'omics'-based platform and synthetic biology for the elucidation, characterization and production of plant natural products.

Alkaloids constitute a diverse class of natural products and due to their potent biological activity, many are commercially exploited. Most alkaloids are derived from amino acids and characterized by a nitrogen atom in a heterocyclic ring. Recently, the alkaloids produced by Amaryllidaceae plants (e.g. Narcissus (daffodils) and Galanthus (snowdrop)) have been attracting increasing interest due to their multiple biological activities.

Production of Apolipoprotein B Fragments for Structural Analysis

Regulation of the secretion of hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) can modulate the plasma level of atherogenic apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins. We have shown that sequences within the ?1 domain of apoB are important for lipid recruitment during assembly, irreversible anchoring of apoB to lipoprotein, and degradation when VLDL assembly is inefficient.

Molecular mechanisms of obesity-induced cardiac dysfunction - role of lysophospholipase signaling

Obesity and insulin resistance are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease including cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathy is characterized by the reduced ability of heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) to contract and/or relax. Maladaptive changes in cardiomyocyte lipid signalling and energy metabolism (increased fatty acid utilization) have been implicated in obesity-induced cardiomyopathy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood.

Redox-dependent mechanisms of the innate immune antiviral response

The molecular mechanisms that explain how the host triggers a first antiviral response against virus infection has been the focus of numerous studies over the past decades. This first line of response involves key signaling cascades that permit the expression of antiviral and proinflammatory genes. Recently we have demonstrated that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in the regulation of this response.

Antibiofilm molecules active agains staphylococci / Molécules antibiofilm actives contre les staphylocoques (Nouveau)

Bacteria within biofilms can withstand the host immune responses, and they are significantly more tolerant to antibiotics and disinfectants. Our laboratory found that some coagulase-negative staphyloccal (CNS) isolates can efficiently block biofilm formation by other CNS species or Staphylococcus aureus. Hypothesis: Some CNS isolates produce antibiofilm molecules that can lead to the development of new drugs and/or new strategies to control staphylococcal infection through biofilm dispersion or prevention.

Structural Investigation of an antibiotic-producing NRPS

Pacidamycins are group of peptide antibiotics which act against the Pseudomonas human pathogens by inhibiting cell wall biosynthesis. Pacidamycins are produced in Streptomyces coeruleorubidus by proteins of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster. NRPS are a class of modular proteins that synthesize small peptide products with a wide variety of chemical and biological properties.

Studies towards a Nickel-Mediated Decarboxylative Coupling

Organometallic reactions are important in organic synthesis and are versatile in creating new C-C bonds. In the past decade, late-transition-metal catalysis has gained increasing attention culminating in the 2010 Nobel Prize in Chemistry award for three seminal palladium catalyzed reactions. However, the commodity metal nickel is more economical and desirable than the other d10 elements, such as Pd and Pt. As chemistry is a continuously evolving science, the concepts of green chemistry and atom economy have gained attention.