Enzyme immobilisation is crucial for preserving the enzyme activity while enabling the enzymes to be recovered and reused for multiple applications in biocatalysis. However, immobilisation can change the structure and functionality of enzymes. Therefore, immobilisation of enzymes needs to be carefully investigated and controlled at fundamental levels. The emerging two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides exhibit unique physico-chemical properties which make them well suited for enzyme immobilisation.
Many major municipalities rely on ultraviolet (UV) disinfection of their drinking water and wastewater to protect their citizens and the environment. The novel coronavirus, Covid19, has been detected in water, and may be transmitted by improperly treated wastewater and drinking water. It is important that the sensitivity of Covid19 to UV be measured, in order to ensure adequate UV disinfection. This project will develop methods to accurately assess the UV sensitivity of coronaviruses, and measure the UV sensitivity of coronaviruses in water.
The steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is the most commonly employed process for extraction of oil or bitumen from oil sands reservoirs. This process involves injection of large quantity of steam into the oil reservoir. The injected steam is further recovered as produced water which constitutes high concentrations of hydrocarbons and mineral salts. Due to the large requirement of water for oil sands processing, the produced water is recycled for the production of steam to reduce fresh water intake.
Reactive crystallization is a process commonly used for the production of chemical compounds including pharmaceutical ingredients. In a stirred-tank setup, one reagent solution stream is injected into the reactor where it meets a sitting solution of the other reagent. Reaction occurs as soon as the reagents meet, forming an insoluble product which quickly precipitates in the form of crystal particles. Distribution of the crystal particle size is controlled by the coupling between fluid mixing, reaction, and crystal formation and growth, which is of vital importance to product quality control.
Occupying the large tailings ponds is the most significant environmental issue for oil sand conventional extraction process. Making Green Ceramic/building materials is the most promising method to reduce the size of tailings ponds. This not only leads to consumption of tailings but also results in valuable products for the construction industries.
Boiler wall tubes are important components in boilers for safe and efficient operation. After service exposure, boiler wall tubes often require replacement or repair, in which new sections of boiler tubes are welded onto the old boiler walls. Following the repair welding, the code requires the boiler be hydrostatic tested before putting the boiler back to service. Our long-term objective is to develop a safe boiler tube hydrostatic test standard. Our short-term objective is to measure the effect of pressure test on welded and repaired boiler wall tube performance.
Bio-oil derived from fast pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass usually contains a high oxygen content (30-50%), leading to a relatively low heating value, high viscosity and poor stability. Moreover, the presence of organic acids in crude bio-oil results in low pH value and hence corrosion of the reactor materials (steel or alloys). To date, a wide range of bio-oil upgrading techniques have been developed, especially hydro-de-oxygenation (HDO), widely employed to remove oxygen of the crude bio-oil via water formation.
This project will evaluate the filiform corrosion (FFC) resistance of aluminum frame, aluminum panels and aluminum glazing bead (when used) via powder coating from Starline Windows Ltd. Currently before coating, aluminum substrates are pretreated with cleaning and etch processes, where an alkaline bath made of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with drinking or reverse osmosis (RO) water is used.
In the last decade optimization is expanded in many applications from food production to sophisticated applications such as engine fuel efficiency. In the proposed package, it is tried to apply optimization techniques along with physics based analytical and semi-analytical methodologies to create a compelling framework which can help thermal-process based oil industry to reduce their GHG and also better evaluate their CAPEX. Many SAGD projects are overspent on their facilities due to under prediction or overprediction of their oil production expectations.
Spray foam plays an important role in building insulation. By far, the only commercially available spray foam is petroleum-based polyurethane foam produced by reacting isocyanate and polyol. This project aims to investigate bio-oil acrylate-amine (BOAA) foam insulation materials with the following characteristics: 1) Bio content >60%; 2) R value 3.4-6.7 (the same R range for polyurethane foams); 3) Limiting oxygen index (LOI) 30 vol%; 4) Compressive strength 10-25 psi; 5) A cost lower than polyurethane foam; 6) Foam preparation by onsite spray.