Although selenium is an essential element for human and animal health, it has a narrow concentration range before becoming toxic. Industrial practices, such as mining, can result in elevated levels of selenium to be introduced into surface water bodies, hence, treating mine processing water and wastewater is commonly done to reduce the potential for environmental impacts. Bacterially mediated redox processes are currently used in the mining industry to remove selenium from wastewater. The byproduct of this treatment is a solid state residual which contains high concentrations of selenium.
Radon is a cancer-causing radioactive gas produced by the natural decay of uranium in rocks and soils. It is the second-leading cause of lung cancer (after smoking) and the primary cause of lung cancer among non-smokers. 16 per cent of lung cancer deaths in Canada are attributable to radon exposureâapproximating 3000 people a year. Radon can become trapped and accumulate in buildings, potentially reaching high levels in indoor air (Khan and Gomes, 2017).
Glass sponges build their skeletons out of silicon dioxide (i.e. glass). While these animals are found all over the world in very deep water, they only exist shallower than 50 m in a few places in the world. In very rare cases, new sponges grow on top of existing, dead sponges and form reefs in a similar manner to coral reefs. As with coral reefs, the structure formed by the reefs is ecologically important because it provides complex habitat and shelter for other animals.
Rockfalls and landslides are a common hazard throughout Canada and have a significant impact on transport corridors, infrastructure associated with natural resources, and in public areas. The ability to determine the potential for slope failures is often limited either by the lack of a detailed assessment of the slope, or by the understanding of the processes driving failure. The latter is particularly limiting when considering small-scale movements, which potentially indicate subsequent, larger failures.
Wetlands provide important ecosystem services to human communities, such as groundwater recharge, storing floodwater, and supplying fishery resources. In Alberta, wetlands cover ~21% of the province, forming one of the Canadas largest wetlands reserves; however, many of these wetlands have been impacted or lost through human activities. Over the past 30 years, there have been efforts made by the government and partner agencies to restore wetlands, but little is known about the rate of recovery and the state of these restored wetlands, relative to a natural reference condition..
World population is expected to increase between 8 and 11 billion people by 2050. This growth will be accompanied by an increasing demand in food. Additionally, climate change is expected to have consequences on crop productivity because there will be changes in temperature and precipitation patterns. For that reason, there is an increasing concern over food security and farmers must make use of all available technologies to meet future food needs but also make sure that the environmental impact is reduced.
Canada is in the midst of an unprecedented overdose crisis, with 922 people dying of overdose in the province of British Columbia in 2016. Pivot Legal Society has a mandate to represent drug users and advance their hu-man rights. It is embarking on a project to bring together drug policy experts across Canada and around the globe to propose regulatory models for all currently illicit substances.
Assessment of the effects of earthquakes on rock slopes requires detailed measurements both before and after the shaking. However, at present, there is a lack of high resolution data that enables this, partly as it is unusual to have good data from prior to earthquakes.
European colonization and industrial development have profoundly transformed the forested landscapes of north-eastern North America. Consequently, historical forest characteristics, such as forests prior to settlement and industrial exploitation (i.e. the presettlement forests), serve as a model for developing a sustainable forest management. In this project, we aim to reconstruct long-term changes in forest landscapes of southern Quebec.
Regional Climate Models (RCMs) allow generating climate-change projections into the future over a limited region of the globe at high spatial resolution. The production of large ensembles of simulations from a same RCM is an emerging field of research allowing to explore in detail the interaction between climate change, natural climate variability and extreme events, at the local scale where climate impacts occur.