Prevention of hepatitis C virus (HCV) re-infection after liver transplantation

Over 170 million persons worldwide are chronically infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV), leading to endstage liver disease and cancer. HCV is the single most common indication for liver transplantation in Canada and the rest of the Western world. After transplant, HCV re-infection is universal and is the chief cause of graft loss. Treatment of post-transplant recurrent HCV is more difficult than pretransplant, with lower response rates that partly reflect the effects of immunosuppression.We propose that the ideal management of post-transplant HCV is its prevention.

Identification of bacterial species with antimicrobial activities against Xanthomonas perforans and optimization of their metabolite production.

The most active bacterial species showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas perforans XcT4 will be identified and tested for their metabolite activities using plant bioassay. Two methods of tomato seedlings treatment will be used: soaking of tomato seeds in bacterial cell suspension before sowing in pots with soil; and foliar spraying of seedlings by bacterial metabolites during their growth. Contamination of seedlings by X. perforans XcT4 will be done after metabolite treatment.

Development of therapeutic peptides to treat bacterial and viral infections Year Two

Advanced Theranostics develops therapeutic peptides to treat bacterial and viral infections. Synthetic peptides have two major disadvantages; ie. they are expensive to synthesize and they are broken down quickly in the body. The solution is to attach these peptides to a human scaffold protein such as albumin, which is abundant in human serum, and to make these peptides as fusion proteins using recombinant DNA technology.

"The mechanism(s) of antimicrobial activity of Kisameet clay

Kisameet Clay is a First Nations product of great interest due to its potent antimicrobial activity. Investigation of KC, as a potent inhibitor of bacterial and yeast growth, shows promise as a therapeutic agent. Work is in progress to identify the chemical components of KC responsible for this therapeutic activity. Work is in progress to identify the active substances. We are collaborating with experts in the study of clay-like materials to ascertain the role of metal ion interactions in the antibacterial property.

Improved quality control of blood products using high throughput mass spectrometry coupled to machine learning approaches.

We will assess the quality and suitability of blood and blood-derived products using a fast and economical approach that combines measurements of molecules in the blood product identified by their weight and computational approaches to make sense of all the data generated. Normal blood products have thousands of small molecules in common. By monitoring a large spectrum of these molecules, we will be in a position to determine the normal state and the quality of the products.

Extracellular biomarker discovery to develop a specific therapeutic treatment in cancer

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide with approximately 8 million deaths in 2010. Most cancer treatments lack specificity and affect the whole body, with toxic effects on both cancerous and normal cells. Although new therapies are emerging, targeting cancer cells is a challenge because of the lack of specific markers on cancer cells. Biomark Technologies Inc. has found that the expression levels of the gene coding for the protein SSAT 1 is upregulated in cancer cells.

Novel Molecule Analysis

NovoBind, in partnership with Dr. Finlay will determined the efficacy of a number of novel molecules capable of neutralizing various pathogens including enterobacteriaceae. These studies will demonstrate the mechanism of action and viability of a new approach to pathogen control. These key assays which characterize the efficacy of our technology in an in-vitro setting will guide their use in animal models.

Development of a non-destructive condensation sampler for airborne viruses

The proposed project is to develop a bioaerosol sampler which will have minimal impact on the infectivity of captured viruses. Airborne viruses are subjected to environmental conditions which could affect their potential of infectivity as well as their capacity to resist the shearing forces and desiccating conditions during sampling procedures with standard sampling apparatuses. This leads to the underestimation of infective viral loads in aerosols and could have a dramatic impact on the nature of the decisions taken for aerosol contamination control.

Evaluate the impact on transmission dynamics and cost-effectiveness of pertussis booster vaccine for Canadian adolescents and adults

Pertussis or whooping cough is caused by the strict human pathogen B. pertussis or Bordetella parapertussis and is a highly contagious, potentially life-threatening respiratory tract illness when it occurs in unprotected infants. Despite the introduction of acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines and great initial success of the immunization program, pertussis outbreaks were reported in adolescents and adults in Canada since 1993. This trend was demonstrated as shift in pertussis epidemiology from infants and young children.

QU02 MRI: a new window on mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease

This project seeks to develop new methods for imaging oxidative and vascular function in the brain. The methods under development are based on widely available MRI hardware, which will make them feasible for use in future clinical drug trials, an application that is of interest to the partner organization CQDM. Before the approach is ready for commercial application, a number of methodological issues must be addressed to achieve optimal sensitivity, specificity, and tolerability in patients.