Optimizing Biofiltration for Improved Manganese Control under Winter Conditions

The presence of manganese in drinking water supplies has been problematic for drinking water providers as it can be difficult to remove during treatment and it creates aesthetic challenges, such as colored (e.g. black, brown) and bad tasting/smelling water. Recently, Health Canada has proposed a health-based maximum acceptable concentration for Mn of 0.10 mg/L. Biofiltration technology is growing in popularity as a sustainable method for removing Mn from drinking water; however, there is a lack of evidence to support the effectiveness in cold water (less than 10ºC).