Seismic response analysis are evaluations that aim to capture how the geological and geotechnical properties of soil deposits at a particular site affect earthquake motions at ground level. Commonly, this type of analysis is performed by assuming the soil layers are horizontal and that the earthquake motion travels in only one direction. However, in reality soil layers are heterogeneous and earthquake motions travel in three directions: two horizontals and one vertical. This combined effect is known as multidirectional loading.
Rockfalls and landslides are a common hazard throughout Canada and have a significant impact on transport corridors, infrastructure associated with natural resources, and in public areas. The ability to determine the potential for slope failures is often limited either by the lack of a detailed assessment of the slope, or by the understanding of the processes driving failure. The latter is particularly limiting when considering small-scale movements, which potentially indicate subsequent, larger failures.
Assessment of the effects of earthquakes on rock slopes requires detailed measurements both before and after the shaking. However, at present, there is a lack of high resolution data that enables this, partly as it is unusual to have good data from prior to earthquakes.
Steep creek hazards such as debris flows and debris floods pose a considerable risk to mountain communities and infrastructure. Relative to other geohazards, debris flows and debris floods are particularly hazardous because they travel rapidly, provide minimal warning and occur frequently. In Canada, professionals have little experience with debris-flow risk reduction due to limited development in mountainous areas. As mountain communities and infrastructure projects expand into more rugged terrain, there will be an increased demand for debris-flow and debris-flood protection in our country.
There are currently tens of thousands of locations throughout North America where pipelines cross stream channels. At these locations, instability of the stream bed and banks poses a serious risk to pipeline infrastructure, and has the potential to cause environmental harm.