Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are the leading candidate for powering hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and pure electric vehicles (EVs) due to their high energy density properties compared to other battery technologies. However, their performance is substantially reduced at temperatures below 0 °C, posing a technical barrier for market penetration of HEVs and EVs. The root cause behind this poor outcome is largely attributed to low conductivity of the electrolyte as well as low lithium-ion diffusivity.
Increases in gasoline price and greenhouse gas emissions have spurred the growth of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and pure electric vehicles (EVs). Rechargeable Li-ion batteries are the leading candidate for powering these vehicles due to their high energy and power density properties relative to other batteries. However, their energy and power capabilities are substantially reduced at low temperatures, posing a technical barrier for market penetration of HEVs and EVs.