Drinking water utilities must maintain water quality in the face of unexpected shocks to the system as well as planned upgrades with unintended consequences. Failure to do so can result in significant threats to public health: the city of Flint, Michigan, for instance, experienced a water quality crisis after making changes to source water chemistry and treatment processes without fully considering the consequences. It is vital, then, that water quality managers synthesize research, practical knowledge, and monitoring data to anticipate and address risks to water quality.
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