Mechanisms involved in triggering the rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine

Currently, the gold standard pharmacological treatment for depression typically take several weeks before becoming effective. This delayed treatment onset can be devastating because of increased rates of suicide during this wait-period. Thus, there is a need for rapid acting antidepressant drug treatments. Strikingly, a single infusion of ketamine can result in alleviation of depressive symptoms within hours. However, the effectiveness of this drug fades away over time.

Brain changes after 1 year of treatment with an injectable antipsychotic in people with a first-episode psychosis.

The proposed project will explore variations in the whole brain after 1 year of treatment that may exist between those who are taking an injectable antipsychotic versus those who are taking an oral antipsychotic in a cohort of first-episode of psychosis. All patients are treated in a naturalistic, early intervention setting at the Douglas Institute in Montreal, Canada. Janssen will benefit from the proposed project as it will help determine the benefits, if any, for prescribing an injectable earlier on in treatment,
namely related to brain tissue change.