Menopause is the natural cessation of a woman’s menstrual cycle. During this transition, low levels of estrogen and associated pro-inflammatory state stimulates a rapid decline in bone tissue which may ultimately increase the risk of fragility fractures. Prevention strategies are warranted to maintain bone mineral density and a strong skeleton after menopause and use of probiotics may serve as a promising approach. Probiotics may modulate bone via regulation of the gut microbiome and subsequent anti-inflammatory pathways in a bacterial strain-specific manner.
Depression is a common and dangerous mental disorder. Depression can develop during puberty after repeat exposure to stress. In our past studies, we found that both male and female pubertal mice will show depressive behaviour after experiencing repeated sleep disruptions. Interestingly, there is a substance called lactate that is produced in humans and mice that may also improve sleep and reduce depression. Certain probiotics, or healthy bacteria, make this lactate will living in the stomachs of humans and mice.
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