A radioluminescent material converts ionizing radiation, such as X-rays, into lower energy photons. The use of radioluminescent nanoparticles has been proposed to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in cancer treatments. During a typical treatment, a molecular specie, called photosensitizer, absorbs visible energy to produce reactive oxygen species, which determine cellular death due to the resulting oxidative stress. The required visible energy has a low penetration depth through the tissues, which limits this approach to superficial treatments.
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