High-energy astrophysics is a young, fast-growing field that has opened a new window to the invisible universe. X-ray spectroscopy is a particularly powerful tool to discover the nature of highenergy sources, since their physical properties are inferred by comparing physical models to observations. Therefore, methods for fitting models to data are of crucial importance. The standard approach is via local optimization. However, these methods suffer from a number of limitations. At the U.
Microwave imaging has gained interest in biomedical imaging because of its non-ionizing and non destructive approach. It will be quick, comfortable and cheap compared to current imaging modalities available such as X-ray tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In microwave imaging, the major challenge is the design of microwave sensors for receiving scattered signal from the target. For effective signal penetration, the frequency of operation has to be low (below 7 GHz), and at this frequency, the sensor size becomes large.
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