At present, the understating of the lateral behavior of large pile group foundations (> 100 piles) supporting bridges, high-rise buildings, marine structures, and LNG tanks is limited. There are no definitive published design recommendations or guidance on evaluation of the lateral group effect of large pile groups. The current design standards (e.g., AASHTO, Canadian Foundation Engineering Manual) are based on the previous experimental results of full-scale and model testing of much smaller pile groups (
Lift stations are an underground utility transporting wastewater from residential or commercial sources to wastewater treatment plants. Lift stations are defined as a post-disaster structure according to national building code of Canada, which are required to remain operational immediately after earthquakes. A wealth of evidence from historical post-earthquake reconnaissance has confirmed the excellent performance of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipelines under earthquakes.
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