Cognitive effects of individualized lifestyle interventions in typical ageing
With a predominantly ageing population around the globe, we have seen a shift in ageing–focused research from a disease-oriented to a health-oriented approach. Planned, large-scale longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of ageing have generated multimodal databases. These data have advanced multi-level and interdisciplinary research on the interactive effects of behaviour, biology, social environments on well-being as people age. As a result, researchers have the unique opportunity, as never before, to study these factors. Indeed, numerous studies have started this questioning and indicated that those factors play a critical role in active ageing, significantly contributing to the quality of life. However, we can identify significant limitations of these studies at both conceptual and methodological levels. First, these studies tend to apply one-size-fits-all models in determining protective or harmful factors affecting the cognition of a highly diverse ageing population. Second, these studies generally do not address the time-varying effects of lifestyle factors over the lifespan. Last but not least, these studies tend to apply models which allow only correlational interpretations, failing to understand the causal relationships. Our research program aims to develop methods to investigate time-varying intervention effects of lifestyles on active ageing.