Economic development often has dire consequences for wildlife and environmental conservation. In Taiwan coastal waters, a small dolphin population is being affected by large-scale habitat loss and degradation resulting from development projects, pollution, vessel traffic and a massive fishing industry.
Conservation of endangered species has become increasingly urgent. This is evident given the rate of species extinction has increased by 100 to 1000-fold, and global biodiversity has decreased. With current climatic changes, these concerns will only grow. Assisted reproductive technologies can play a vital role in endangered species conservation. Many approaches are currently being utilized or explored, including animal cloning. Unfortunately, cloned animals are not genetically pure and therefore are not valuable for use in breeding programs.
Idiopathic pulmonary (lung) fibrosis (IPF) affects 5 million people with a mean survival time of 2-3 years after diagnosis. In lung fibrosis, connective tissue fibroblasts excessively produce and stiffen collagen matrix. The resulting scar destroys the delicate lung architecture, decreases lung compliance and gas exchange, ultimately rendering patients unable to breathe. The only effective treatment for IPF patients is a lung transplant. Typical of lung fibrosis is the chronic co-existence of fibroblasts, innate immune macrophages, and adaptive immune T-cells.
Vaccines are one of the most important medical breakthroughs, proactively saving millions of lifes and reducing human morbidity. Yet there remains a need to make current vaccine formulations more effective and affordable, which requires testing and optimizing new formulations. In addition, there remains diseases for which there are no efficient vaccine. To develop and test new vaccines or vaccine formulations, Sanofi Pasteur and other manufacturers often rely on animal testing.
Focused Ultrasound (FUS) is a therapeutic modality that can concentrate non-invasively mechanical energy far from its source in just a few cubic millimeters. FUS is used, by example, to treat brain disorders such as essential tremor. At research level, very diverse approaches are being explored.
Life on the planet has evolved in constant presence of radiation, some of which comes from space, and some of which comes from natural sources in the Earth. This natural background radiation (NBR) is a normal component of biological life. One way we can study the role of NBR in life is to see what the effects are when we take it away. This is difficult to do at the surface of the planet and requires that we go deep underground to shield out some of these parts of NBR.
Powdery mildew is a foliar fungal disease that attacks all Cannabis sativa varieties. The majority of license producers (LP) producers have witnessed evidence of this problem firsthand. Plant yields and ultimate profitability can be severely undermined by pathogen infections. This pathogen is challenging to deal with, and early detection of fungus and pests eliminate these crop losses and boost overall yields. The proposed research will apply novel molecular breeding approaches to obtain durable and broad spectrum resistance to Powdery mildew.
Many patients who initially respond well to highly efficacious chemotherapy eventually develop resistance and relapse despite continued treatment. These cancers acquire drug resistance to current therapies through various mechanisms such as the acquisition of mutations for example. Furthermore, some promising targets that play a crucial role in the progression of cancer have been deemed undruggable using current methods.
Fungal pathogens of agriculturally significant crops pose a serious threat against global food security. This is exacerbated by the limited classes of fungicides that are commercially available for the farmers and the rapid emergence of resistance against the existing fungicides. Furthermore, resistance against agricultural fungicides can poses serious threat to human health as it can provide cross-resistance to the antifungal drugs that are used in the clinics world-wide.
Sensors that track human movement are becoming more and more popular in all kinds of applications including healthcare, sport and general human movement. However, traditional sensors generally have problems tracking individuals indoors and they are not very accurate when measuring subtle movements. Using innovative technology, new wearable sensors have been developed to track human movement that have solved the problems associated with previous sensors.