In the backcountry, the best powder skiing can be found in terrain that is susceptible to snow avalanches. Travelers are responsible for managing this threat by choosing terrain that will minimize this threat, and they must strike a balance between minimizing risk and finding an enjoyable skiing experience. Perception plays a fundamental role when selecting terrain, which means that these choices are influenced by a suite of psychological factors.
The Assessing the Impact of Older Adults Casino Recreational Bus Trips study will assist the Older Adult Centres' Association of Ontario (OACAO) in supporting their member organizations who offer casino bus trips. The OACAO is comprised of Older Adult Centres throughout Ontario, many of which offer recreational bus trips to their clients. However, it is not clear if casino bus trips are an overall benefit to older adults or if the harm that is sometimes associated with these trips outweighs the positive impacts.
Avalanche Canada and Park Canada publish avalanche bulletins daily to provide backcountry users with information on avalanche hazard. Since 2010, Canadian bulletins follow the recently developed conceptual model of avalanche hazard (CMAH), which describes the key components of avalanche hazard and how to combine them into an overall assessment. However, the CMAH does not provide guidance on how hazard assessments relate to danger ratings on the North American Public Avalanche Danger Scale, a crucial tool for avalanche risk communication and a central component of avalanche bulletins.
Canada and US governments have committed to establishing preclearance for land, rail and sea travelers in a manner similar to that for air travel. While the primary reason for this is security, preclearance presents an opportunity to streamline journeys for travelers thereby creating better travel experiences and reputations for destinations.
The federal governments have agreed to implement preclearance in BC for those land, sea and rail gateways where U.S. Customs and Border Patrol already provide pre-inspection services.
Different snowpack structures and weather conditions create distinct types of avalanche problems that require different risk mitigation practices. In North America, nine types of avalanche problems have been identified in the recently introduced Conceptual Model of Avalanche Hazard (CMAH). Avalanche Canada and Parks Canada forecasters have identified and assessed avalanche problems according to the CMAH daily since the winter 2009/10. This dataset provides a unique opportunity for examining the nature of avalanche hazard in western Canada.
Research suggests that individuals with autism live a lower quality of life than their peers. Individuals with autism are more likely to become obese than their typically developing peers, and less likely to develop friendships and be involved in their communities. While physical fitness service providers are experts in physical fitness, working with individuals with autism can require additional teaching skills. This study will investigate the effectiveness of instructor implemented Positive Behaviour Support for young adults with autism in a physical fitness program.
Helicopter and snowcat skiing in the backcountry involves different hazards such as avalanches, tree wells or helicopter incidents, which can result in serious injuries or even death. While the risk associated with avalanche involvements is well understood, no systematic analyses have been conducted on the other risks.
Kelp beds are marine sanctuaries, providing some of the most productive ecosystems on the planet and serving as critical habitat and refuge for many species, including juvenile salmon. Recently, declines in kelp populations have been reported by several groups including fisherman and kelp harvesters in the Pacific Northwest. However, the extent and cause of this habitat loss is unknown. It is thought that an increase in stressors associated with climate change (rising ocean temperatures or acidification) is a major contributor.
Phosphorous is the key nutrient limiting fish productivity and algal growth in Ontario lakes: more phosphorous can mean more fish, but it can also mean more algal growth, and potentially even toxic blue-green algal blooms. Multiple stressors like climate change, human land-use practices, and shoreline development, all affect lake phosphorous levels beyond natural geo-climatic factors. Thus, lake water quality is carefully monitored by government and volunteer-based water-quality monitoring programs such as the Lake Partner Program (LPP).
In the backcountry, avalanche risk is managed by first assessing avalanche hazard and subsequently carefully choosing terrain and travel procedures accordingly to mitigate the identified hazard. What are suitable terrain choices under different types of avalanche conditions and how are choices made? With this project, we quantitatively examine large-scale terrain choices in two commercial backcountry skiing operations in British Columbia. Our data set covers four resp. sixteen winter seasons with documented operational decisions on where to ski.