Mathematical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations Modeling Electrostatic MEMS

Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), which combine electronics with miniature-size mechanical devices, are essential components of the modern technology. In order to provide accurate, controlled, and stable locomotion for such microdevices, researchers have proposed a variety of models, based upon thermal, biological, or electrostatic forces. There are many industries and manufacturers in Ontario who rely on MEMS technology in a crucial way. Our objective is to use mathematical analysis to predict various phenomena related to some of these models.

Interplay between monocytes/macrophages and cardiomyocytes in diet-induced diabetes

Insulin controls blood sugar and is required for the entry of sugar (glucose) into blood cells from blood. Excess body fat in obesity or high fat diet makes body resistant to insulin. Due to this insulin resistance, sugar accumulates in the blood and over time this leads to an increase in blood sugar and development of type 2 diabetes (T2D).  Normally insulin resistance precedes the development of T2D by 10-20 years.  Because insulin resistance is associated with cardiovascular problems, people with T2D are at a high risk for heart disease.

Retail Intelligence: Moving from Reporting to Optimization and Decision-Making

Retail businesses are increasingly reliant on fine-grained data about customer preferences, demographics, and behavior, as collected by sources that range from loyalty programs and sales records, to physical sensors. Typically such data is leveraged in the context of a report or statistical summary used to advise human decision-makers. In contrast to the retail sector, industrial areas like manufacturing have a long history of operations research, whereby data serves not only to populate reports, but as the basis for optimizing objectives and supporting decisions mathematically.

Constructing lexicons of Canadian English

Language technology-for example, spelling checking-is widely used. A key
component of many language technology systems is a computational lexicon-a

Hierarchical Heat Transfer Modelling in High-End Electronic Devices

One of the main challenges in the development of nano-scale devices is that the conventional physical relations and techniques, which have been used for modelling thermal problems at macro-scales, are no longer valid at these small scales.  In this project, we are developing a new hierarchial methodology to be applied to thermal management issues for nano-scale devices.  The impact of elecromigration in a joule heating form will also be explored.  Devices with nano-scale feature sizes are currently employed in high-end electronic systems.  In this method, we include the atomistic level effe

Privateye electronic navigational aids for individuals with vision impairments

This research project will support the design of electronic navigational aids for enhancing mobility for individuals with vision impairments. The researchers will work closely with members from the vision-impaired community throughout the project period to understand the contexts where such aids could be helpful to them and to evaluate the usability of relevant components, products and services.

An Abstraction Layer for Querying and Understanding Business Process Behaviours

Business intelligence is the commercial term for using information within organizations to make informed decisions, and to run operations effectively based on known data. The Canadian business intelligence (BI) market is projected to increase from C$185 million in 2006 to over C$290 million by 2011. Ontario is home to Cognos, a world leader in BI, which was recently acquired by IBM. The proposed collaboration between the University of Toronto, IBM Cognos, and IBM Research would use an emerging technology for business process management, called "business entities with lifecycles" (a.k.a.

Application of Data Mining Methods to Radiation Therapy Planning Automation

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an advanced technique for cancer treatment through high-precision radiation delivery. It generally requires a complex planning procedure, where the crucial step is manual delineation of the organs at risk in three-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography (CT) images, performed using simple drawing tools. It is a labour-intensive and error-prone process which, depending on the clinical case, may often require several hours of intensive work.

Conductivity measurements of cardiac tissue using magnetic resonance imaging

The first objective of this project is to obtain the first high resolution impedance measurements of cardiac tissue. These measurements will be synchronized with electrocardiogram to determine quantitatively for the first time the changes of conductivity at different stages of the cardiac cycle. Since the heart is one of the most electrically-active areas inside human body, knowledge of its electrical properties will benefit many cardiac modeling and clinical applications. The second objective of this project is to test the influence of anisotropy on cardiac impedance imaging.

State-of-Charge Display Device for Disposable Batteries

In the last ten years the market for mobile devices and portable electronics has never ceased to grow, creating a rising demand for batteries. However it is practically impossible for consumers to identify their actual state-of-charge leading to the disposal of still viable batteries. In the past battery manufacturers have developed “on-board” testers allowing consumers to gauge the charge but these indicators have been discontinued due to their lack of reliability and their active feature discharging the battery while in use.