Different autoimmune diseases often have similar mechanisms that trigger and drive the pathology. Therefore, it’s logical that having one autoimmune disorder increases the risk of acquiring another one. At the same time, autoimmune disease cooccurrence is rare. Our research found that type 1 diabetes (T1D) and multiple sclerosis (MS) share common mechanisms. We pinpointed the protein, called NLRX1, that protects against both autoimmune diseases. This protein belongs to the class of pattern recognition receptors that we use to detect pathogens.