A new aqueous rechargeable battery combining an intercalation cathode with a metal anode has been developed recently. The energy density for a prototype battery is comparable or superior to commercial 2 V rechargeable batteries. There is a need to further improve the cycle performance and to reduce self-discharge effects of this battery. In this proposed research, novel surface improvements will be applied to the cathode material to improve the overall electrochemical performance of the battery and to improve the stability of the cathode material.
High capacity battery systems are becoming as important as their smaller analogues which are currently in use in mobile devices. Rechargeable lithium-ion battery packs serve as uninterruptible power supplies or energy stores in electronic vehicles (EVs) and realize the EV technology for many countries. This promotes sustainable development while addressing air quality and climate change. The main challenges are to increase the affordability, power density, and safety for such lithium-ion batteries.