Mathematical Modeling of Porous Structure and Operation of Cathode Catalyst Layers in PEM Fuel Cells

Highly efficient and environmentally clean energy conversion in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells is driven by electrochemical reactions that convert hydrogen and oxygen molecules into water. Water, the product of the overall reaction, is involved in all essential processes in the cell. Water management is, thus, a critical issue for fuel cell operation. It entails controlling water fluxes and maintaining appropriate levels of liquid water saturation in the different cell components.