Periodontitis is a polymicrobial infectious and inflammatory disease that can lead to destruction of supporting structures of teeth. Although pathogenesis of periodontitis includes genetic and environmental factors, oral microbial biofilm elicits an inflammatory host reaction. Improvement in patients with periodontitis relies mainly on elimination or at least control of periodontal pathogens. The aim of this study is to investigate the activity of antibacterial-antifungal mouth rinses on growth and virulence properties of planktonic/biofilm cells of specific periodontal pathogens.
Antibodies are used for treatment of many diseases, including cancer. Within the human immune system, antibodies fight invading bacteria and viruses. We have devised a way to make high-quality antibodies in the laboratory and target them to specific disease-related proteins that have been identified by the scientific community and in our lab. Ensuring that these antibodies work in cells the way we intend them to in the body is a critical step of identifying their potential as therapeutic agents and also in the commercialization process.
Allergic asthma is a condition of the airways characterized by airway constriction and hyperresponsiveness upon allergen exposure. About half of the allergic asthmatic individuals experience only an acute airway constriction (early response) within several minutes upon exposure to allergen while the other half of individuals experience not only an acute airway constriction but also a chronic airway constriction plus inflammation (late response) within several hours after the allergen exposure. It is not clear why the late response is not developed in all sensitized individuals.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is thought to develop in people when their gut bacteria leak out of their intestines, and cause chronic gut inflammation. We recently found that the cells that line the guts of healthy people possess a specialized defense system called an inflammasome.
In preliminary studies, the inflammasome seems to prevent the gut from becoming leaky, and helps it fight bacteria. Interestingly, some people with IBD are known to be missing inflammasomes.
Recent discoveries show that neutrophils mainly die by formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in Cystic Fibrosis airways. Therefore determining mechanism and identifying FDA-approved drugs that inhibit NETosis could provide novel options to treat CF lung disease. We aimed to do the comparative gene expression analysis during NETosis induced by different NET inducing agents (PMA,LPS,A23187) in CF neutrophils. Furthermore to translate the findings for therapeutic targets, screening of large scale drugs, kinases and specific pathways inhibitors associated with NETosis are required.
A new film coating that can respond appropriately to different pH conditions of the stomach and small intestine (GI tract) was successfully prepared by combining pH-responsive nanoparticles with ethylcellulose polymer. However, the performance of the composite membrane has not been optimized for controlling drug release in the GI tract. Therefore, improvements are to be made through experimental design, such as central composite design, to find the appropriate composition of the nanoparticles to achieve the best overall combination of coating properties.
We are developing a new generation of devices for continuous chemical and nano-particle purification, based on the interactions of analyte with multiple types of driving forces in an electro-fluid-dynamic system. The two-dimensional electrofluid-dynamic (2-D EFD) devices, in which both electric field and hydrodynamic pressure are simultaneously utilized in 2-D channel networks to drive the mass transfer, provide better control on the analyte molecules or nanoparticles by simply adjusting the magnitude of pressure.
Peritoneal Mesothelioma (PM) is a rare type of cancer affecting the protective membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity and the second most common type of mesothelioma, consisting about 10-20% of the diagnosed cases. The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of peritoneal mesothelioma pathology are greatly understudied. In this proposal, we aim to enhance the current knowledge of PM pathogenesis and explore therapeutic treatments for it.
Omega-3 fats are good for our health. When a person has low levels of omega-3s, this can lead to a number of serious health problems, such as heart disease. The typical diet in North America doesn’t have much omega-3 fat, meaning that most people have low levels of these important fats. The existing tools to measure how much omega-3 fat a person has are time-consuming and not practical to use in healthcare clinics. Therefore, a diagnostic test that is quick and easy to use is needed.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a blood cancer with very poor prognosis, especially for patients older than 60 years of age. This is in part because of the severe toxicity of medicines available. Less harmful medicines are needed to better treat older patients. Therapure Biopharma Inc. has chemically linked the standard toxic chemotherapy medicine called cytarabine to the blood protein hemoglobin to make a potentially safer and more effective medicine to treat AML. In collaboration with the University Of Waterloo School Of Pharmacy, Therapure Biopharma Inc.