Bio-oil derived from fast pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass usually contains a high oxygen content (30-50%), leading to a relatively low heating value, high viscosity and poor stability. Moreover, the presence of organic acids in crude bio-oil results in low pH value and hence corrosion of the reactor materials (steel or alloys). To date, a wide range of bio-oil upgrading techniques have been developed, especially hydro-de-oxygenation (HDO), widely employed to remove oxygen of the crude bio-oil via water formation.
This research seeks to finalize the design of an indentation tool to help shoulder surgeons determine bone density more accurately during joint replacements. Bone density is an important characteristic used to select the type and size of implant needed; and is also related to how stable an implant remains after surgery. Unfortunately, there aren’t tools currently available to shoulder surgeons for determining bone density objectively during surgery.
Deep retrofits are a holistic approach to increasing a building’s capacity to be resilient to and adapt to climate events, such as: heat waves, flooding, air pollution, and earthquakes. Deep retrofits also help to lower a building’s energy use and operational and embodied carbon emissions. Operational carbon emissions are the greenhouse gas emissions associated with daily operation of the building, while embodied carbon emissions are associated with the materials and processes used in construction of the building.
Patients admitted to hospitals, particularly older patients suffering from multiple diseases, mostly take several medications. Kidney function tends to decline with age, even in patients without kidney disease. Therefore, kidneys cannot filter the medication properly from our body. In such a situation, certain medications or a combination of multiple medications can cause severe damage to kidneys. Sometimes a high dose of a medication may be harmful to a patient and lead to death.
Spray foam plays an important role in building insulation. By far, the only commercially available spray foam is petroleum-based polyurethane foam produced by reacting isocyanate and polyol. This project aims to investigate bio-oil acrylate-amine (BOAA) foam insulation materials with the following characteristics: 1) Bio content >60%; 2) R value 3.4-6.7 (the same R range for polyurethane foams); 3) Limiting oxygen index (LOI) 30 vol%; 4) Compressive strength 10-25 psi; 5) A cost lower than polyurethane foam; 6) Foam preparation by onsite spray.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined as a sudden loss of kidney function over a short period of time. It is one of the most common clinical events in hospitalized patients. AKI can lead to a lower chance of survival and prolonged hospital stays. Therefore, early detection and diagnosis of AKI allows for simple management plans to be used to lower the length and severity of AKI and its associated mortality. The main goal of this project is to identify the patients who are at high risk of developing AKI by analyzing patient medical history data using advanced computational techniques.
In Canada, 35% of injuries occur during participation in sports or exercise (Billette, 2011). Sports-related injuries costs the Canadian healthcare system $1.5 billion annually (Parachute, 2015). Injury prevention in sports is of paramount to the athlete, coaches, team management, and health team. Overtraining and fatigue are common causes for injury in sports. Training load is an important factor to optimize athlete performance and minimize risk of injury.
The SARS-CoV-2 virus is currently causing a pandemic that is overburdening the healthcare system and causing unprecedented economic disruptions on a global scale. A method called serological testing uses viral proteins to determine if the someone has been infected and has now become immune to the virus; however, it is currently very expensive to produce. If someone is known to be immune to SARS-CoV-2, then they can go back to work without spreading the virus.
The goal of the project is to facilitate a rapid test to identify people with immunity to SARS-CoV-2.
The objective of the proposed research program is to develop a flexible and unified multivariate framework for modeling the returns of financial assets. The program is innovative since it establishes closed-form formulas for an efficient and reliable calculation of risk measures and derivative prices. For financial institutions and government regulators, who are performing pricing and risk management calculations very frequently with thousands of assets, closed form solutions are of immense importance.
Global population growth, urbanization and changing climate patterns have increased the demand for potable water, wastewater reuse and value recovery from wastewater, and for remediation of industrial process water. Population growth also results in increased demand for the shipping of goods by ocean freight, with the associated risk of the transport of unwanted marine life from one location to another by the discharge of ballast water.