Les esters à chaînes courtes sont des molécules employées comme ingrédients de base dans la fabrication d'arômes et de fragrances. Certains esters sont très prisés, tels que ceux entrant dans la composition des arômes de menthe givrée et de fraise. Cependant, ces esters sont particulièrement difficiles à obtenir naturellement et/ou artificiellement. De plus, la demande commerciale est grande pour obtenir ces esters avec une certification naturelle. Il est néanmoins possible de les fabriquer ''naturellement'' en utilisant des enzymes en laboratoire.
Reproductive Longevity (RL) is a complex biological trait under the control of many genes. In Cattle, RL is a key productivity factor, especially for dairy cows. The proposed research aims to identify RL-controlling genes in mammals using: 1) a unique model system, selectively-bred mouse lines that reproduce twice as long and have twice as many litters as matched control lines and 2) cattle (bulls) with High or Low genetic merit for Longevity. The project Partner, Performance Genomics Inc.
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are recently discovered lymphocytes that have innate ability to produce a specific set of hormone-like proteins called cytokines. While the importance of ILC2s in allergic diseases including asthma have been implicated by recent reports, the progress in our understanding of ILC2s has been hampered by the fact that they are rather rare lymphocytes and difficult to detect or isolate. The goal of our project is to develop rapid and simple method to isolate ILC2s from mice and humans.
Natural fibres have been used in many industry sectors such as automobiles, aerospace, construction, etc., but their use in the biomedical industry is relatively new. The major obstacle to their use is the lack of information on relevant fibre properties. This project focuses on testing three critical properties: antimicrobial properties, antioxidant properties, and water sorption in flax, hemp, canola, and sweet clover fibres. Testing these properties will be a stepping stone for proving the applicability of natural fibres in biomedical applications.
A number of natural products including ginseng, green tea catechins and the essential fatty acids DHA and EPA display neurosupportive and neuroprotective qualities. These bioactive compounds may be useful in preventing various forms of neuronal cell loss, including the degeneration observed in Parkinson’s disease.
Enzymes, Nature’s catalysts, are increasingly used for the degradation of complex sugars such as starch and cellulose in industries such as food processing, brewing and biofuels. New enzymes are normally found by the slow process of assaying individual cultured microorganisms. Discovery can be speeded up enormously through metagenomics, wherein DNA is extracted from samples such as soil and useful genes, hence enzymes, identified by sequencing and screening. Importantly this also allows access to the otherwise inaccessible 95% of genes from non-culturable organisms.
The proposed project is two-phased. The first phase involves a study that will use specialized research analysis techniques to compare the effectiveness of pharmaceutical drugs used to treat type II diabetes and to identify if a group of drugs are producing similar benefits in terms of controlling the disease. The applicant’s clinical and epidemiological background would bring value to our study design for this and future projects. The second phase involves economic cost modeling that will forecast financial implications of study findings.
The goal of this research project is to explore the current definition of obesity along with the association of body fat distribution and biochemical markers with serious health conditions. Our investigation will employ the utilization of the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (the current gold standard to measure body fat percentage, subcutaneous body fat and visceral body fat) to more accurately define obesity and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors.
Hip fractures exert a profound toll on the independence and quality of life of older people, and over 95% are due to falls. Over 2000 hip fractures occur annually in hospitals in Canada. Wearable hip protectors are a promising method for preventing hip fractures, but patient compliance in wearing traditional garment-based hip protectors averages below 20%.
Substantial research has been implemented to delineate the efficacy, mechanism of action and identification of the medicinal components of natural extracts for clinical use, especially in the field of cancer. This project is aimed at identifying all biologically active components of dandelion root extract (DRE), a natural health product (NHP) that has shown potential as an anticancer agent. The identification of these components will enable the development of quality control standards for DRE.