Using Viral Dynamics to Connect Clinical Markers of Disease Progression to Sequence Evolution for HIV-1

HIV-1 remains a global health challenge, with over 35 million people infected. The high rates of turnover and evolutionary adaptability exhibited by HIV-1 pose a particular challenge to the use of antiretrovirals, as well as the development of a vaccine. Our focus is to understand the dynamics of two of the most commonly tracked clinical markers of an HIV-1 infection: CD4+ T cells/mm3 (CD4 count) and HIV-1 RNA/ml (viral load).

Increasing the expression of frataxin with the CRISPR system

Friedreich is an hereditary disease, which in due to a mutation of the frataxin gene. This mutation leads to a reduced production of the frataxin protein. This leads to oxidative stress and death of the cells. The death of the neurons and cardiomyocytes are responsible for progressive severe neurological and cardiac symptoms.

Reducing daytime leg fluid accumulation using electrical stimulation of the legs to decrease overnight rostral fluid shift and consequent sleep apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder affecting 6% of the adult population and increases risk of cardiovascular mortality. OSA occurs due to repeated full or partial collapse of the upper airway during sleep. One contributor to airway collapse during sleep is the overnight shift of fluid from the legs towards the neck where it accumulates. Increased daytime fluid accumulation in the legs magnifies this, resulting in more fluid accumulation in the neck and increased OSA severity.

An economic evaluation of sulfonylurea medication, hypoglycemic episodes and falls in older adults with type 2 diabetes

Drug use in older persons is a major public health concern. Even though therapeutic drugs are beneficial for patients’ health in terms of survival or quality of life, patients aged >65 years have a greater risk of developing drug-related complications. Such complications may be fatal because of the high frequency of both multiple pathologies and polypharmacy in these patients, who consume a major proportion of healthcare resources.

Identification of bacterial species with antimicrobial activities against Xanthomonas perforans and optimization of their metabolite production.

The most active bacterial species showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas perforans XcT4 will be identified and tested for their metabolite activities using plant bioassay. Two methods of tomato seedlings treatment will be used: soaking of tomato seeds in bacterial cell suspension before sowing in pots with soil; and foliar spraying of seedlings by bacterial metabolites during their growth. Contamination of seedlings by X. perforans XcT4 will be done after metabolite treatment.

Synergistic actions of nutraceuticals on pain and inflammation in experimental arthritis

Arthritis is among the most common chronic conditions in Canada in both children and adults. Arthritis is a potentially disabling disease causing joint inflammation and pain. Increasingly, people suffering from arthritis are using alternative therapies including nutraceuticals. This research aims to create new knowledge about the synergistic effects of gamma-linoleic acid (GLA), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) with and without boswellia serrate extract to improve pain and inflammation in models of juvenile and adult arthritis.

Development of peptide-based PCSK9 inhibitors for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia

Hypercholesterolemia, characterized by increased plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, is a major determinant of the risk of cardiovascular disease (the leading cause of global mortality). Unfortunately, the commonly known cholesterol-lowering drugs are not effective enough to obtain the recommended cholesterol levels for many people. PCSK9 plays a critical role in cholesterol metabolism, and thus its inhibition emerged as a novel therapeutic target for hypercholesterolemia.

Bioremediation potential of a bacterial inoculant, Inocul-M consortium, on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) plants grown in soils amended with biochar and spiked with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Remediation and reclamation of contaminated lands could be achieved by incorporating biofuel agro-ecosystems that utilizes large biomass plant species with low-nitrogen requirements and have high bioremediation potential, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), in conjunction with biochar, a carbon–rich soil amendment, and inoculated with beneficial plant and soil microbes.

Characterization, antibacterial mechanism and improvement of Kisolite Clay

Kisolite Clay, a unique BC clay, has been found to have healing properties for skin irritation and internal ailments. However, this clay is not well understood in terms of its chemical and physical properties and the mechanism underlying its antibacterial properties. During preliminary tests it was found that the pH and oxidation state of the Kisolite clay changed over time. The impact of these changes on antibacterial properties will be investigated.

Potential of magnetic nanoparticle targeting with the help of cell permeable proteins

Magnetic drug targeting is a recent drug delivery method where the drug is bound to a carrier, the magnetic nanoparticles. Directed with a magnetic field towards the target tissue, e.g., tumours. the drug is released there to produce a therapeutic effect. In many cases, however, it is additionally necessary that the drug enters the target cells to be active.

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