Disposal of industrial and domestic effluents in shallow water bodies

It has been a common practice to discharge water, wastewater and industrial effluents into open channels such as rivers and streams.   Such discharges, in the form of jets, often enter shallow bodies of water typically found in rivers and coastal bays.  In contrast to the existing body of knowledge on unconfined turbulent jets in which the influence of the bounding surface is either absent or minimal, shallowness has a dramatic effect on the flow field of shallow jets.  To better understand and control the a flows/processes, knowledge of the velocity field is an essential ingredient. Research in several of the above-mentioned areas is in progress at the University of Windsor using a state-of-the-art Particle Image Velocimeter. Specifically, this study will focus on the effects of vertical confinement on the characteristics of large-vortical structures.   The jet exit velocity will range from 2.5 m/s to 5 .0 m/s.  Experiments will be performed at water layer depths corresponding to 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 times the jet exit diameter and will conform to commonly occurring practical applications.  The large-scale structures will exposed by using a mathematical technique called proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). 

The student will learn to use the state-of-the-art instrumentation available in the laboratory, learn the details of the mathematical tools used as part of the research, learn to analyse data using several state-of-the-art tools and write a report and also participate in completion of a journal article.

Faculty Supervisor:

Dr. Ramaswami Balachandar


Vibhor Gupta



Engineering - civil


Environmental industry


University of Windsor


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