State Estimation and Active Equalization of Lithium-ion Batteries for Application in Battery Management System (BMS) for Electric Vehicles

Electric vehicles (EVs) industry is a promising solution to address the oil crisis and environmental pollution. There are some challenges that limited the widespread adoption of EVs such as limited driving range, long charging time, and safety consideration. To tackle these challenges, the battery management system (BMS) in electric vehicles requires substantial improvement. For instance, accurate battery on-line state estimation in BMS, such as state of charge (SOC), state of health (SOH), and state of power (SOP) can enhance the reliability of EVs. On the other hand, internal and external conditions of cells could cause inter-cell inconsistency of variables such as operating voltage, SOC, or capacity which accelerate the aging mechanism and decrease the battery life cycle. In this research, a physics-based model will be developed to accurately estimate the battery states and efficiently and rapidly equalize the inter-cell inconsistencies to enhance the battery life cycle.

Faculty Supervisor:

Michael Fowler


Zhiyu Mao


Granano Tech


Engineering - chemical / biological




University of Waterloo



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