Development of bio-based wood adhesives with low formaldehyde emission from liquefied crop residues

Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resins are catalyzed poly-condensation products from phenol and formaldehyde. The annual global production and consumption of PF resins is over 3.0 Mt and valued more than $2 billion. However, the World Health Organization’s International Agency has classified formaldehyde to be carcinogenic to humans. Therefore, it is of great interest to produce green […]

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