Time-Dependent Effects On Vertical Shafts Used In Micro-Tunneling applications In Queenston Shale

Micro-tunneling technique is considered a feasible means to construct pipelines and tunnels in different types of ground including Queenston shale. However, this shale exhibits time-dependent deformation behavior, generally known as the rock swelling which produces additional stresses on underground structures. These stresses may exceed the allowable tensile or compressive strength of concrete of the pipeline […]

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