In dairy cows, future generations are created by embryo transfer techniques, which entail a superovulation treatment followed by fertilization in the field or in the laboratory. Due to enormous pressure exerted by breeders, cows are now superovulated very young, even before puberty and thereafter are superovulated routinely. Despite improvements in this technique, there is still variability in the ovarian response to treatment and loss of ovarian response after the 5th or 6th superovulation treatment.
Streptococcus suis is one of the most important causes of bacterial disease in post-weaned piglets. Affected animals suffer from meningitis (affected brain), endocarditis (affected heart), arthritis (affected joints) and septicemia (general infection). There are 35 serotypes of S. suis (same bacteria but different antigens). Some of these serotypes (such as serotype 2) can also affect humans (transmission from pigs), causing serious disease. Usually, veterinarians use antibiotics to treat and even protect animals.
The profitability of dairy production is based on the ability of the animal to have high milk production, good health and good fertility. A major challenge for dairy producers is to select for high performing animals and avoid the undesirable correlated response between production and other traits.
The sea louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is the most economically important parasite that affects salmon farming and it is a cause for major environmental concern due to the risk of transmission to wild salmon population. The development of drug resistance in a number of L. salmonis populations to the most effective sea lice therapy - SLICETM diminishes the ability to control sea lice levels on farmed salmon.
Since yeast probiotics and their cell wall components (CWC) are being used to treat enteric inflammatory diseases in different species including humans, they may be useful for preventing Johne’s disease, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Considerable variation in the efficacy of different yeast probiotics and their CWC has been reported; therefore we are proposing to develop in vitro assays that will allow us to assess potential anti-adhesive properties of yeast strains and CWC using MAP as a target pathogen.
Iron is required for the growth of all animal cells, being necessary for the proper function of diverse enzyme systems and the expression of certain genes, as well as for the production of oxygen radicals that function as signal transduction intermediates and help defend against microorganisms.