Pertussis or whooping cough is caused by the strict human pathogen B. pertussis or Bordetella parapertussis and is a highly contagious, potentially life-threatening respiratory tract illness when it occurs in unprotected infants. Despite the introduction of acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines and great initial success of the immunization program, pertussis outbreaks were reported in adolescents and adults in Canada since 1993. This trend was demonstrated as shift in pertussis epidemiology from infants and young children.
The purpose of the Health Status report is to provide a snapshot of the health of the population served by the Prairie North Regional Health Authority (PNRHA). Its vision of “healthy people in healthy communities” serves as the driving force of the report in hopes to better understand the social, economic, physical, political and cultural context within the PNHRA. For the intern, the PNRHA provides the necessary organizational environment, support, mentor and supervision to the intern in a public health setting while the student accomplishes the given project.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is the leading cause of developmental disabilities in Canada and is an umbrella term describing the range of effects associated with alcohol use during pregnancy. Currently, we do not know exactly how many Canadians are living with FASD, but we estimate 350,000 and that 3,000-4,000 babies with FASD are born every year. The costs for health, mental health, social services, education, and productivity losses are estimated to be a staggering $5.3 billion per year.
A quantitative risk prediction model is to be constructed. We need to determine if the available data will fit an existing model and validate the results or if a new statistical model is required. Each case will be allocated into one of three categories (low, moderate and high risk). This stratification must have clinical validity andutility. The cut-offs for the stratification will be established based primarily on clinical utility and on the availability of the data. The cut-offs will be optimized to achieve optimum AUC, NPV, PPV, sensitivity and specificity values.
Health economic evaluation compares the associated costs and the clinical outcomes of multiple treatment alternatives and is presently used by payers as one of the many types of evidence to inform which drugs to fund. Given existing health-care budgetary constraints, payers are increasingly interested in knowing whether a new health technology will provide value (i.e. are the incremental costs justifiable with improved outcomes). Economic evidence can therefore impact whether a health technology will be successful in gaining market access.
Patients who have hemophilia, a rare blood clotting disease, often have to make important decisions about different treatments for their condition. Research studies have shown that if patients and their health care providers communicate openly about treatment options and preferences and make decisions together, then the chosen treatment can lead to better patient satisfaction and treatment.
Depression is expected to become the second leading cause of disease burden worldwide by the year 2020. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is one of the most effective methods of treatment for depression. CBT may be less effective, or ineffective, in the setting of patients in receipt of disability benefits who are likely to, on average, suffer worse outcomes than patients not receiving benefits. Currently, there is no review that has systematically assessed the effectiveness of CBT in patients suffering from depression and in receipt of disability benefits.