The Opportunity Equation

The Opportunity Equation is a multi-year research project that explores trends, dynamics and causes of income inequality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The project aims to produce a comprehensive portrait of the changing income distribution and income gaps among key socio-demographic groups in the City of Toronto, York Region and the Region of Peel between 1980 and 2015. It looks beneath aggregated measures on inequality to investigate how much of an income gap exists among various socio-demographic groups and how these gaps change over time. Examining the income trajectories of different socio-demographic groups provides insights into the social factors structuring income distributions and in turn the basis of income inequality. This report will provide the most in-depth and up-to-date analysis of income gaps among different socio-economic groups in the GTA, using the most reliable data currently available.

Faculty Supervisor:

Gabrielle Slowey


Benjamin Johnson


United Way of Toronto & York Region


Political science


Management of companies and enterprises




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